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You are watching: The bedford guide for college writers 11th edition
Learn by doing as you receive explicit help and plenty of writing examples as Bedford Guide for College Writers with Reader, Research Manual, and Handbook prepares you for common writing assignments found in college and on the job.
X. J. Kennedy is an acclaimed poet, children’s author, college teacher, and textbook author. He has taught freshman composition at the University of Michigan; the University of North Carolina, Greensboro; and Tufts University. Since 1966, more than 2 million students have treasured his introductory literature texts and The Bedford Reader, coedited with Dorothy M. Kennedy and Jane E. Aaron, now in its ninth edition. Dorothy M. Kennedy is a writer and editor whose articles and reviews have ppeared in both professional and academic journals. She has taught composition at the University of Michigan and Ohio University and, with X. J. Kennedy, is the recipient of the NCTE Teacher”s Choice Award for Knock at a Star: A Child”s Introduction to Poetry.Marcia F. Muth teaches, writes, and edits. She has taught first-year writing at The Ohio State University and other introductory courses at St. Peter”s College (Englewood Cliffs). Her many writing workshops have been sponsored by Fordham University, the University of Colorado Colorado Springs, and currently the School of Education and Human Development at the University of Colorado Denver. She is the author or coauthor of many composition textbooks and ancillaries, including The Bedford Guide for College Writers, The Concise Bedford Guide for Writers, Writing and Revising: A Portable Guide, Researching and Writing: A Portable Guide, and The St. Martin”s Pocket Guide to Research and Documentation (all from Bedford/St. Martin”s). Her projects as a writer and an editor have included Harold D. Lasswell: An Annotated Bibliography as well as many grant proposals, textbooks, ancillaries, reports, and other publications. She continues to learn how to write clearly and effectively from her students, editors, reviewers, and writing colleagues.
Table of Contents
A WRITER’S GUIDEPart One: A College Writer’s Processes1. Writing ProcessesWriting, Reading, and Critical ThinkingA Process of Writing Generating Ideas Learning by Doing: Reflecting on Ideas Planning, Drafting, and Developing Learning by Doing: Reflecting on Drafts Revising and EditingUnderstand Your Writing Situation Writing with Purpose Learning by Doing: Writing with Purpose Writing for Your Audience Learning by Doing: Writing for Multiple Audiences Writing in Different Genres Learning by Doing: Experimenting with Genres Learning by Doing: Analyzing a Piece of WritingAdditional Writing Activities2. Reading ProcessesA Process of Critical Reading Preparing to Read Responding as You Read Learning by Doing: Annotating a Passage Learning by Doing: Keeping a Reading Journal Learning from Other Writers: Summarizing and Responding Robert Jensen, From The High Cost of ManlinessStudent Summary and Response: Olof Eriksson, The Problems with MasculinityReading on Literal and Analytical Levels Learning by Doing: Reading Analytically Generating Ideas from ReadingLearning from Other Writers: Responding Critically Neil DeGrasse Tyson, From The Cosmic PerspectiveStudent Critical Reading Response: Ayesha James, Responding to Neil DeGrasse Tyson’s “The Cosmic Perspective” Learning by Doing: Reading CriticallyReading Online and Multimodal Texts Learning by Doing: Reading a WebsiteAdditional Writing Assignments3. Critical Thinking ProcessesA Process of Critical Thinking Applying Critical Thinking in Daily Life Learning by Doing: Thinking Critically When Facing a Problem Applying Critical Thinking to Academic ProblemsThinking Critically about Your Own Writing: Self-Reflection How to Reflect on Your Own Writing Learning by Doing: Reflecting on Your College CareerContexts for Self-Reflection Learning by Doing: Reflecting on Your Course SyllabusLearning from Other Writers: Self-ReflectionStudent Self-Reflection: Khalia Nadam, What I Learned from My Research ProjectAdditional Writing ActivitiesPart Two: A Writer’s Situations4. Recalling and ObservingWhy Recalling and Observing MatterLearning from Other WritersMargaret Rhee, Returning to My Father”s KoreatownStudent Essay: Robert G. Schreiner, What Is a Hunter?Learning by Writing The Assignment: Recalling a Personal Experience or Observing a Scene Generating IdeasPlanning, Drafting, and DevelopingRevising and EditingLearning by Doing: Strengthen Your Main Idea, Impression, or ThesisReviewing and ReflectingAdditional Writing Assignments5. Interviewing for InformationWhy Interviewing for Information MattersLearning from Other WritersJon Ronson, How One Stupid Tweet Blew Up Justine Sacco’s Life Student Essay: Lorena A. Ryan-Hines, Looking Backwards, Moving ForwardLearning by Writing The Assignment: Writing an Essay Based on an Interview Generating IdeasLearning by Doing: Analyzing Interview QuestionsLearning by Doing: Practicing by Interviewing a Classmate Planning, Drafting, and Developing Revising and Editing Learning by Doing: Supporting a ThesisReviewing and ReflectingAdditional Writing Assignments6. Comparing and ContrastingWhy Comparing and Contrasting MatterLearning from Other WritersRichard Fry, Ruth Igielnik, Eileen Patten, How Millennials Today Compare with Their Grandparents 50 Years AgoStudent Essay: Isaac Sinclair, E-Cigarettes Pose a Hidden DangerLearning by Writing The Assignment: Comparing and Contrasting Generating Ideas Learning by Doing: Making a Comparison-and-Contrast Table Planning, Drafting, and DevelopingLearning by Doing: Building Cohesion with Transitions Revising and EditingReviewing and ReflectingAdditional Writing Assignments7. Explaining Causes and EffectsWhy Explaining Causes and Effects MattersLearning from Other WritersSimon Gottschalk, In Praise of Doing Nothing: Why Leisure Time is Good for ProductivityStudent Essay: Yun Yung Choi, Invisible WomenLearning by Writing The Assignment: Explaining Causes and Effects Generating IdeasLearning by Doing: Determining Causes and Effects Planning, Drafting, and Developing Learning by Doing: Focusing Your Introduction Revising and EditingReviewing and ReflectingAdditional Writing Assignments8. Taking a StandWhy Taking a Stand MattersLearning from Other WritersSuzan Shown Harjo, Last Rites for Indian DeadStudent Essay: Marjorie Lee Garretson, More Pros Than Cons in a Meat-Free LifeLearning by Writing The Assignment: Taking a Stand Generating IdeasLearning by Doing: Testing Potential TopicsLearning by Doing: Supporting a ClaimLearning by Doing: Addressing Counterarguments Planning, Drafting, and DevelopingLearning by Doing: Identifying Types of Appeals Revising and EditingLearning by Doing: Reflecting on Your DraftReviewing and ReflectingAdditional Writing Assignments9. Proposing a SolutionWhy Proposing a Solution MattersLearning from Other WritersWilbert Rideau, Why Prisons Don’t WorkStudent Essay: Lacey Taylor, It’s Not Just a BikeLearning by Writing The Assignment: Proposing a Solution Generating IdeasLearning by Doing: Describing Your Audience Planning, Drafting, and DevelopingLearning by Doing: Proposing a Solution Revising and EditingLearning by Doing: Revising for Clear OrganizationReviewing and ReflectingAdditional Writing Assignments10. Evaluating and ReviewingWhy Evaluating and Reviewing MatterLearning from Other WritersJames Bennett, If You’re Mad about “DAMN.,” You Probably Need to Listen to More Hip HopStudent Essay: Elizabeth Erion, Internship Program Falls ShortLearning by Writing The Assignment: Writing an Evaluation Generating IdeasLearning by Doing: Developing Criteria Planning, Drafting, and DevelopingLearning by Doing: Stating Your Overall JudgmentLearning by Doing: Reflecting on Product Reviews Revising and EditingReviewing and ReflectingAdditional Writing Assignments11. Supporting a Position with SourcesWhy Supporting with Sources MattersLearning from Other WritersCharles M. Blow, Black Dads Are Doing Best of All Student Essay: Abigail Marchand, The Family DynamicLearning by Writing The Assignment: Supporting a Position with Sources Generating Ideas Planning, Drafting, and Developing Learning by Doing: Strengthening Your Position as you Gather EvidenceLearning by Doing: Avoiding Accidental PlagiarismThe Academic Exchange Revising and EditingReviewing and ReflectingAdditional Writing Assignments12. Responding to Literature Why Responding to Literature MattersLearning from Other Writers Chitra Banerjee, ClothesPreparing to Write a Literary Analysis Student Literary Analysis: Amina Khan, “Saris, Jeans, and Independence: The Symbolism of Chitra Banerjee Divakaruni’s ‘Clothes’” Learning by Writing The Assignment: Analyzing a Literary Work Generating Ideas Learning by Doing: Writing a Paraphrase of a PoemPlanning, Drafting, and Developing Learning by Doing: Examining Fiction GenresLearning by Doing: Developing Your ThesisRevising and Editing Reviewing and ReflectingAdditional Writing Assignments 13. Responding to Visual Representations Why Responding to Visual Representation MattersLearning from Other WritersStudent Analysis of an Advertisement: Logan Sikora, “The Attention Test”Learning by Writing The Assignment: Writing a Visual Analysis Generating IdeasLearning by Doing: Seeing the Big Picture Learning by Doing: Observing Characteristics Learning by Doing: Interpreting Meaning Planning, Drafting, and DevelopingRevising and Editing Reviewing and Reflecting Additional Writing AssignmentsPart Three: A Writer’s Strategies 14. Strategies: A Case StudyGenerating Ideas Planning, Drafting, and Developing Rough Draft with Peer and Instructor Responses Learning by Doing Responding as a Peer Revising and Editing Revised and Edited Draft Final Draft for Submission: Nick Catizone, “Smartphone Addiction: Which Generations is to Blame?”Reflecting as a Writer Learning by Doing Writing a Reflective Letter Reflective Portfolio Letter 15. Strategies for Generating Ideas Finding Ideas Building from Your Assignment Brainstorming Learning by Doing Brainstorming or FreewritingDoodling or Sketching Mapping Imagining Asking a Reporter’s Questions Learning by Doing Asking a Reporter’s Questions Keeping a Journal Learning by Doing Keeping a Journal Getting Ready to WriteSetting up Circumstances 16. Strategies for Stating a Thesis and Planning Shaping Your Topic for Your Purpose and Your Audience Considering Purpose and AudienceStating and Using a Thesis Learning by Doing Identifying Theses How to Discover a Working Thesis Learning by Doing Discovering a Thesis How to State a Thesis Learning by Doing Examining Thesis Statements How to Use a Thesis to Organize Learning by Doing Using a Thesis to Preview Organizing Your Ideas Grouping Your Ideas Outlining Learning by Doing Moving from Outline to Thesis Learning by Doing Outlining 17. Strategies for Drafting Making a Start Enjoyable Restarting Paragraphing Using Topic Sentences Learning by Doing Shaping Topic SentencesWriting an Opening Learning by Doing Trying Different Methods of Writing an OpeningWriting a Conclusion Learning by Doing Evaluating Openings and Conclusions Adding Cues and Connections 18. Strategies for Developing Learning by Doing Editing Sentences Giving Examples Learning by Doing Giving Examples Providing Details Learning by Doing Providing Details Defining Learning by Doing Developing an Extended DefinitionReasoning Inductively and Deductively Analyzing a Process Learning by Doing Analyzing a Process Dividing and Classifying Comparing and Contrasting Learning by Doing Comparing and Contrasting Identifying Causes and Effects Learning by Doing Identifying Causes and Effects 19. Strategies for Revising and Editing Re-viewing and Revising Revising for Purpose and Thesis Revising for Audience Revising for Structure and Support Learning by Doing Tackling Macro Revision Working with a Peer Editor Questions for a Peer Editor Meeting with Your Instructor Revising for Emphasis, Conciseness, and Clarity Stressing What Counts Cutting and Whittling Keeping It Clear Editing and Proofreading Editing Proofreading Learning by Doing Reflecting on Past Grades and Comments20. Strategies for Creating Presentations and Portfolios Presentations Preparing PresentationsUsing Visuals Learning from Other Writers: Visuals for Oral PresentationsStudent Presentation: Andrew Dillon Bustin, Traditional Urban Design Portfolios Keeping a Portfolio Understanding Portfolio Assessment Tips for Keeping a PortfolioBook 2: A WRITER’S READER21. AmericaShankar Vedantam et al, The Huddled Masses and the Myth of AmericaJudith Ortiz Cofer, More RoomSophie Egan, The American Food PsycheStephen Kinzer, Joining the Military Doesn”t Make You a Hero (paired reading)Sidra Montgomery, The Emotion Work of “Thank You for Your Service” (paired reading)22. LanguageJenny Jarvie, Trigger HappyJames Baldwin, If Black English is not a Language, Then Tell Me, What Is?Yesenia Padilla, What Does ‘Latinx’ Mean? A Look at the Term That”s Challenging Gender Norms Richard Rodriguez, Public and Private Language (paired reading)Amy Tan, Mother Tongue (paired reading)23. Popular Culture Stephen King, Why We Crave Horror Movies Kurt Dean Squire and Matthew Gaydos, No, Fortnite Isn’t Rotting Kids’ Brains. It May Even Be Good for Them.Kate O’Neill, Facebook’s “10 Year Challenge” Is Just a Harmless MemeRight?Jason Johnson, How Stan Lee Taught a Generation of Black Nerds about Race, Art, and Activism (paired reading)Jeffrey A. Brown, “I’m the Goshdarn Batman”The Rise of Cute Superheroes (paired reading)24. InequalityVanessa De Luca, Serena Williams Was Blamed for Defending HerselfShanna Kattari, Transgender and Non-Binary People Face Health Care DiscriminationVictoria Rosenboom and Kristin Blagg, from Disconnected from Higher EducationElizabeth Kolbert, The Psychology of Inequality (paired reading)Keith Payne, from The Broken Ladder (paired reading)25. Gender Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie, Happy FeministBrent Staples, Black Men and Public Space Peggy Orenstein, Dress to Respect Yourself: Enforcing Female Modesty in SchoolsAlina Bradford, What Is Transgender?Sally Hines, The False Opposition Between Trans and Feminist RightsBook 3: A WRITER’S RESEARCH MANUAL26. Defining Your Research Project Learning by Doing: Reflecting on ResearchResearch Assignments: Working from SourcesThe Research ProposalThe Source EvaluationThe Annotated BibliographyThe OutlineThe Research PaperCreating a ScheduleChoosing a TopicNarrowing Your TopicTurning a Topic into a Question Moving from Research Question to Working Thesis Plan Your ResearchSample Assignment: Creating a Research Proposal 27. Finding SourcesSearching the InternetFinding Recommended Internet SourcesSelecting Search EnginesConducting Advanced Electronic SearchesFinding Specialized Online MaterialsSearching the LibraryUsing the Library Catalog Searching Library DatabasesUsing Specialized Library Resources Finding Sources in the FieldInterviewingObservingUsing QuestionnairesCorrespondingAttending Public and Online EventsReconsidering Your Field Sources28. Evaluating SourcesAssessing Reliability Who Is Responsible for the Source?What Type of Source Is It? Is the Source Scholarly or Popular?What Is the Source’s Purpose?When Was the Source Published?Assessing BiasRecognizing Biases across the Political SpectrumAssessing RelevanceConsidering Your PurposeEvaluating Online Sources with Healthy Skepticism Understanding a Site’s Purpose Recognizing Bias across the Political SpectrumFighting “Fake News” Recognizing “Clickbait” Distinguishing between News and Advertisements Being Wary of Social Media Authenticating Information Diversifying Your News SourcesReviewing Your SourcesSample Assignment: Preparing a Source Evaluation29. Working with SourcesManaging Your SourcesTaking Advantage of Digital ToolsOrganizing on PaperKeeping a Working BibliographySample Assignment: Developing an Annotated BibliographyTaking NotesReading ActivelyInformationQuotingParaphrasingSummarizingCiting SourcesIdentify the SourceCite the Location of the Source MaterialIntegrating Material from SourcesIntegrating Quotations and ParaphrasesIntegrating SummariesSynthesizing Ideas and SourcesUsing Sources EthicallyAvoiding Plagiarism30. Writing a Research PaperPlanning with a Thesis StatementDraftingUsing Your Sources to Support Your IdeasCiting and Integrating Your Sources as You DraftBeginning and EndingRevising and EditingDocumenting Sources31. MLA Style for Documenting SourcesCiting Sources in MLA Style Listing Sources in MLA Style Source Navigators: MLA A Sample MLA Research Paper 32. APA Style for Documenting SourcesCiting Sources in APA Style Listing Sources in APA Style Source Navigators: APAA Sample APA Research PaperBook 4: A WRITER’S HANDBOOKIntroduction: Grammar, or The Way Words Work Learning by Doing Creating an Error Log 33. Basic Grammar1. Parts of Speech2. Subjects3. Verbs, Objects, and Complements4. Clauses and Phrases5. Sentence Structures34. Grammatical Sentences 6. Sentence Fragments 7. Comma Splices and Fused Sentences 8. Verb Tense 9. Irregular Verbs10. Verb Voice and Mood11. Subject-Verb Agreement 12. Pronoun Case 13. Pronoun Reference 14. Pronoun-Antecedent Agreement15. Adjectives and Adverbs 16. Shifts 35. Effective Sentences Learning by Doing Focusing on Sentences 17. Misplaced and Dangling Modifiers18. Missing Words 19. Mixed Constructions 20. Parallel Structure 21. Coordination and Subordination 22. Sentence Variety 36. Word Choice 23. Appropriateness 24. Exact Words 25. Bias-Free Language 26. Wordiness 27. A Glossary of Troublemakers Learning by Doing Refining Your Wording 37. Punctuation Learning by Doing Tackling Punctuation Patterns 28. End Punctuation 29. Commas 30. Misuses of the Comma31. Semicolons 32. Colons 33. Apostrophes 34. Quotation Marks 35. Dashes 36. Parentheses, Brackets, and Ellipses 38. Mechanics 37. Abbreviations 38. Capital Letters 39. Numbers 40. Italics 41. Hyphens 42. Spelling Answers for Lettered Exercises APPENDICES AND OTHER RESOURCESQuick Format GuideQuick Research GuideQuick Editing Guide