The drawbacks of Rutherford”s nuclear atomic model are: a. It lacks details about how electrons are arranged around the nucleus. b. It does not explain why certain elements are more reactive than other elements.c. It does not explain why the negatively charged electrons in an atom are not pulled into the atom”s positively charged nucleus. d. It does not account for the differences in chemical behavior among the various elements.
The orbitals of the sublevels of the same principal energy level differ in shape which describes where the electron is likely to be found.
An s orbital has the shape of a sphere and is the orbital having the lowest energy. A p orbital is dumbbell-shaped and has the next higher energy. A d orbital has a more complex shape and a higher energy than either an s orbital or a p orbital. An f orbital has the highest energy of these four orbital types; this orbital has a very complex shape.
It is a model that describes subatomic particles and atoms as waves. Schrodinger applied a mathematical model of the wave/particle nature of matter to hydrogen. Solutions to the Schrodinger equation determine the energies an electron can have and how likely it is to find the electron in various locations.
In an s orbital, the probability of finding an electron a particular distance from the nucleus does NOT depend on ____.
The quantum mechanical model determines the allowed energies an electron can have and how likely it is to determine its location around the nucleus of the atom.
How do the energy differences between the higher energy levels of an atom compare with the energy differences between the lower energy levels of the atom?
How did Rutherford explain why electrons in the outer region of the atom are not pulled into the nucleus?
Rutherford proposed that electrons move in orbits around the nucleus like the planets orbit the sun.
A photon with a frequency associated with ultraviolet radiation is absorbed by a hydrogen atom. The atom later undergoes spontaneous photon emission, producing three photons. How is this possible, and what can you say about the energies of the emitted photons?
The emitted photons are produced by the electron dropping to energy levels between the initial and final levels for photon absorption. Because the energies between any two of these levels is smaller than the difference between the energy levels during absorption, the photons that are emitted have smaller energies than the absorbed photon. Because of conservation of energy, the energies of the three emitted photons equal the energy of the absorbed photon.
What causes an aurora, and why does it occur more easily and appear brighter nearer the poles than in equatorial or mid-latitude regions?
Earth”s magnetic field draws charged particles from the sun toward the poles, where the particles collide with atoms in Earth”s atmosphere. These atoms give up the energy acquired in the collisions as spontaneous emission of photons, producing an aurora. Because there are more collisions near the poles, more light is ultimately emitted, producing a brighter aurora more often.
Which electron transitions in the Bohr hydrogen atom will produce photons with the shortest wavelengths?
The transitions from any of the excited energy levels to the ground state will produce photons with the greatest energy, and therefore the shortest wavelengths.
An emission spectrum is a unique series of spectral lines emitted by an atomic gas when a potential difference is applied across the gas.
According to Bohr”s model, only certain orbits are stable, and the electron is never found between these orbits.
An absorption spectrum is a continuous spectrum interrupted by dark lines that are characteristic of the medium through which the radiation has passed.
The constantly accelerated electrons in Rutherford”s model of the atom would continuously radiate electromagnetic waves, and therefore would be unstable. Also, his model did not explain spectral lines.
Starlight passes through a cloud of cool atomic gases. What kind of spectrum will be produced, and what will it look like?
The resulting spectrum is an absorption spectrum, which appears as a nearly continuous spectrum with dark lines where light of given wavelengths is absorbed by the gases in the cloud.
Which of the following statements is true about emission spectra? a. Emission spectra form dark lines on a continuous spectrum.b.The wavelengths of the spectrum are characteristic of the element emitting the light.c.The wavelengths of the spectrum are the same for all atomic gases.d.The wavelengths of the spectrum are the same for all elements.
Which of the following is not a weakness of the Rutherford model of the atom?a.The atom radiates energy continuously.b.The atom cannot produce spectral lines.c.The atom is unstable.d.The atom is mostly empty space.