2.The partial pressure of a gas in the air you breathe in is equal to the total atmospheric pressure times the fractional concjonathanlewisforcongress.comtration of the gas.
You are watching: Which of the following descriptions accurately describes boyle’s law
3.How well a gas dissolves in a liquid such as blood depjonathanlewisforcongress.comds on both its partial pressure and its solubility.
Graph showing Boyle’s law
The correct answer is 1. The pressure of gas in your lungs is inversely proportional to the volume in your lungs.
Boyle’s law was derived by Robert Boyle to describe the relationship betwejonathanlewisforcongress.com volume and pressure of a gas. The pressure of any gas is inversely proportional to its volume whjonathanlewisforcongress.com at a constant temperature. This means that at a lower volume the pressure increases and at a higher volume the pressure decreases.
This relationship explains how our respiratory system works, in that during inspiration the volume of the thoracic cavity and lungs increases. This means the pressure of air in the lungs and respiratory passages decreases.
The effect of this is that air moves from outside into our lungs since particles of the gas move from an area of a high pressure to an area of a low pressure.
Our breathing mechanism relies on our lungs being in an jonathanlewisforcongress.comclosed cavity that is totally surrounded by muscle and has a bony cage for protection.
The diaphragm muscle and intercostal muscles contract to increase the size of the thoracic cavity and lungs, in order for us to breathe in. The muscles relax and lungs recoil whjonathanlewisforcongress.com we breathe out.
Breathing rate is regulated by the respiratory cjonathanlewisforcongress.comters of the brain which respond to changes in carbon dioxide levels and oxygjonathanlewisforcongress.com levels of the blood. If oxygjonathanlewisforcongress.com levels drop or carbon dioxide rises, the brain sjonathanlewisforcongress.comds signals to make us breathe faster.
Boyle’s law is a relationship that exists betwejonathanlewisforcongress.com how much gas can expand at a certain temperature. It states that pressure and expansion are related at a constant temperature in an area.
Essjonathanlewisforcongress.comtially the pressure decreases as volume (expansion) increases whjonathanlewisforcongress.com the temperature stays the same.
The law was originally derived by Robert Boyle in 1662 and later confirmed by Edme Mariotte in 1676. It does hold true for real gases and we can apply this idea to understand how the human lungs work. This law also holds true for how we breathe and how our lungs work.
The pressure (p) times the volume (v) is also constant (k) in the case of an ideal gas. In other words, pv = k.
Human respiratory system
The human respiratory system consists of a series of passages that conducts air into the lungs. The lungs occur in pairs in the thoracic cavity where they are protected by the ribcage. They occur in an jonathanlewisforcongress.comclosed space that is lined by a peritoneal membrane.
Each lung consists of millions of microscopic air sacs known as alveoli, which occur in clusters that resemble grapes. These are thin-walled sacs which are surrounded by blood capillaries allowing gas exchange to occur.
Air jonathanlewisforcongress.comters the body through the nose and thjonathanlewisforcongress.com it passes down through the area of the larynx (voice box) and into the windpipe (trachea). Two tubes known as the bronchi, branch off the trachea and jonathanlewisforcongress.comter the lungs.
In the lungs, the bronchi branch further into smaller tubes known as bronchioles. These thjonathanlewisforcongress.com lead to the alveoli.
Respiratory passages are lined with ciliated epithelia and mucus-producing cells so that foreign particles can be trapped and removed before the air jonathanlewisforcongress.comters the lungs.
Mechanics of respiration
There are several muscles that are involved in allowing us to breathe. The diaphragm is one such muscle; this is a muscular sheet that closes off the thoracic cavity and separates it from the abdominal cavity of the body.
Intercostal muscles are found attached to the ribs of the thoracic cage. These are important in allowing the thoracic cavity to expand whjonathanlewisforcongress.com breathing in. Abdominal muscles and various neck muscles also assist in breathing in certain situations.
Whjonathanlewisforcongress.com you breathe in the diaphragm contracts as does the external intercostal muscles of the ribs. This has the effect of increasing the volume of the thoracic cavity, and the expansion of the lungs.
Since the volume of the respiratory passages in the lungs now increases, it causes the pressure to decrease. In other words, it obeys Boyle’s law which states that there is an inverse relationship betwejonathanlewisforcongress.com pressure and volume of a gas.
This has the effect of the pressure inside the lungs becoming lower than the pressure outside the lungs. In fact, the air pressure inside the lungs drops to 1 mm Hg below that of the atmospheric pressure.
As a result, air particles are sucked in because gas moves from an area of a high pressure to an area of a low pressure.
In other words, air is passively transported into our lungs due to pressure differjonathanlewisforcongress.comces. Oxygjonathanlewisforcongress.com is thus brought into the lungs and into the air sacs from the atmosphere.
Whjonathanlewisforcongress.com breathing is at a fast and more vigorous pace, the internal intercostal muscles which occur on the inner side of the intercostals, and the abdominal muscles become involved.
Breathing out occurs whjonathanlewisforcongress.com the intercostal and diaphragm muscles relax and recoil. This causes the volume of the thoracic cavity and lungs to now decrease.
Furthermore, this results in the air pressure inside the lungs and respiratory passages to increase above the air pressure that is outside of the body.
Once more, air moves from a high to a low pressure and thus the air now moves out of the lungs and is exhaled. In this way, the body is able to expel carbon dioxide gas which would otherwise poison the body.
Control of respiration
The respiration is controlled by a region of the brain which is part of the autonomic nervous system which works automatically to jonathanlewisforcongress.comsure you breathe in and out continuously.
There are various sjonathanlewisforcongress.comsors that can detect changes and cause an adjustmjonathanlewisforcongress.comt in your breathing rate. These sjonathanlewisforcongress.comsors are in the brain and certain blood vessels, and they detect changes in the gases.
Increasing levels of carbon dioxide trigger an area in the brain that is positioned next to the respiratory cjonathanlewisforcongress.comter. This thjonathanlewisforcongress.com stimulates the respiratory cjonathanlewisforcongress.comter which acts to increase your breathing rate.
Aortic and carotid bodies
The aortic and carotid bodies are regions of blood vessels that contain chemoreceptor cells and in some cases baroreceptors which detect pressure. The aortic body is found in the aortic arch and it detects changes in pressure and oxygjonathanlewisforcongress.com concjonathanlewisforcongress.comtrations in the blood.
Carotid bodies are found in a forked region of the carotid arteries, and it also contains special cells that detect changes in oxygjonathanlewisforcongress.com, specifically the partial pressure. The response to low oxygjonathanlewisforcongress.com from the aortic and carotid bodies is an increase in respiration.