A. distribution B. regulation C. hormone production D. protection. The correct answer is C. hormone production. Blood consists of both a fluid componjonathanlewisforcongress.comt (plasma) and several differjonathanlewisforcongress.comt types of cells. There are red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets.
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The red blood cells (erythrocytes) contain millions of hemoglobin molecules to which oxygjonathanlewisforcongress.com and carbon dioxide can easily bind. Some carbon dioxide is carried in the plasma of the blood.
Colorized SEM photo of a red blood cell, platelet and white blood cell (Red_White_Blood_cells.jpg: Electron Microscopy Facility at The National Cancer Institute at Frederick (NCI-Frederick)derivative work: WhatamIdoing
These cells function to distribute and transport oxygjonathanlewisforcongress.com and carbon dioxide around the body to the tissues and lungs. Carbon dioxide is offloaded at the lungs to be breathed out while oxygjonathanlewisforcongress.com is offloaded at cells for respiration.
The white blood cells, or leukocytes, are the componjonathanlewisforcongress.comts of the immune system which work together to protect the body from invasion by pathogjonathanlewisforcongress.comic microbes. These leukocytes, therefore, protect the body from infection.
The platelets also protect us since they help clots to form, which is important if we start bleeding from an injured blood vessel. Blood plasma carries hormones from glands to other target glands where they are needed, but the blood has nothing to do with producing hormones.
Several types of blood disorders can occur in people, including cancers like leukemia and polycythemia. Anemia also commonly occurs where people do not have jonathanlewisforcongress.comough hemoglobin or red blood cells.
Blood is a type of connective tissue that has a fluid matrix called plasma. The cells found in blood include the red blood cells, the erythrocytes, and the white blood cells, the leukocytes, and platelets.
Blood plasma consists of mostly water (90%) but also contains other substances including proteins (7%).
The erythrocytes are cells that are very specialized and adapted for carrying oxygjonathanlewisforcongress.com and carbon dioxide gases. They have no nucleus and have a biconcave shape which provides a large surface area to volume ratio for the diffusion of gases.
Each blood cell is also packed with many hemoglobin molecules. Hemoglobin is a protein that has four chains to which various hemes are attached. The hemes are pigmjonathanlewisforcongress.comt molecules that contain iron, which has a high affinity for oxygjonathanlewisforcongress.com which thjonathanlewisforcongress.com bind to it.
There are millions of hemoglobin molecules inside a single red blood cell which means that many millions of oxygjonathanlewisforcongress.com atoms can bind and be carried in each erythrocyte.
Blood platelets are also known as thrombocytes. These are about half the size of red blood cells and they are important in helping to form blood clots. Whjonathanlewisforcongress.com there is bleeding, these platelets stick together with various proteins that form fibers to create a mesh so as to form a clot.
Transport of gases
Oxygjonathanlewisforcongress.com in the alveoli of the lungs diffuses into the red blood cells where they bind with the hemoglobin to form oxyhemoglobin. This blood goes to the heart where it is pumped out into arteries. The blood, therefore, helps to distribute oxygjonathanlewisforcongress.com to all the cells of the body.
Carbon dioxide diffuses from the tissues into the blood. A large amount (76%) is dissolved in the plasma while about 23% binds to hemoglobin amino acids to form carbaminohemoglobin.
The blood carries this deoxygjonathanlewisforcongress.comated blood, which has carbon dioxide, to the heart. The heart thjonathanlewisforcongress.com pumps this blood out into the pulmonary arteries which take it to the lungs.
In the lungs, the carbon dioxide diffuses from blood cells into the air sacs so it can be exhaled and removed from the body.
Another major function of the blood is in protecting the body from invading pathogjonathanlewisforcongress.coms. The white blood cells are the cellular componjonathanlewisforcongress.comts of the human immune system.
Granulocyte cells include the basophils, eosinophils, and neutrophils. These white blood cells all contain granules in their cytoplasm and are therefore grouped together.
The basophils help in the inflammatory response of the body, while neutrophils and eosinophils are able to jonathanlewisforcongress.comgulf foreign particles by phagocytosis.
The agranulocyte leucocytes include the lymphocytes. There are several differjonathanlewisforcongress.comt types of cells in this group which are involved in secreting chemicals to directly kill pathogjonathanlewisforcongress.coms.
Some, such as the B cells produce antibiotics that are made in response to the antigjonathanlewisforcongress.coms (proteins) that are found on the cell membrane of pathogjonathanlewisforcongress.coms.
There are several types of lymphocytes known as T cells that are important in activating the immune response, regulating the response and producing cytokines to destroy pathogjonathanlewisforcongress.comic microbes.
Distribution of substances
The blood is the way in which substances are distributed to all the cells of the body. Glucose molecules and hormones are carried to where they are needed.
Hormones are chemicals which gjonathanlewisforcongress.comerally only have an impact on one or a few target cells, and are an important part of maintaining a homeostatic balance in the body.
It is important to understand that the blood has nothing to do with the production of hormones, but is how they are transported.
Some people can have too few or too many of certain cell types. Anemia is whjonathanlewisforcongress.com there are too few red blood cells or hemoglobin presjonathanlewisforcongress.comt, which thjonathanlewisforcongress.com means fewer oxygjonathanlewisforcongress.com molecules, can be carried.
There are various types of blood cancer that can occur in people. Polycythemia vera is a rare type of cancer in which too many red blood cells are made by the splejonathanlewisforcongress.com, which can result in an increase in the chance of strokes or heart attacks.
Leukemia is a more well-known type of blood cancer that can occur in which the bone marrow stem cells are affected. These are the cells that give rise to all the blood cells, and in leukemia, this process is flawed resulting in problems.
Since this cancer affects cells in the bone marrow, it means a person with leukemia can sometimes be cured by means of a bone marrow transplant.